The Books I Read in 2011

Following on from 2009 book recommendations and 2010 book recommendations, the books I read in 2011 included the following :


In The Plex: How Google Thinks, Works, and Shapes Our Lives  by Steven Levy – Excellent book that analyses the history of Google. Interviews with key staff and analysis of some of their greatest innovations. Read it.

The Most Important Thing: Uncommon Sense for the Thoughtful Investor (Columbia Business School Publishing) by Howard Marks – Nice book on value investing strategies and how you need to think on higher levels than the masses to profit.

This Time Is Different: Eight Centuries of Financial Folly  by Carmen M. Reinhart, Kenneth Rogoff – Whilst this isn’t easy reading, and I am still only 70% through it, there are some valuable lessons within.

Barbarians at the Gate: The Fall of RJR Nabisco by Bryan Burrough and John Helyar – I remember enjoying this book but not huge amounts of it have stayed with me.

When Genius Failed: The Rise and Fall of Long-Term Capital Management by Roger Lowenstein – Excellent book on how some very smart people miscalculated some very big bets on fixed income arbitrage.

The 100 Best Business Books of All Time: What They Say, Why They Matter, and How They Can Help You by Jack Covert and Todd Sattersten – Strangely enough, I really enjoyed this. Little snippets of business wisdom here and there.

The First 90 Days: Critical Success Strategies for New Leaders at All Levels by Michael Watkins – Read 50% of this. Some good ideas in there but it didn’t hold my attention.

Thinking about Thinking

Thinking, Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman – Like an almanac of behavioural economics / irrational decision making experiments. Read it.

The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature by Steven Pinker – Only 20% through this one.

The Denial of Death by Ernest Becker – This is an interesting read. It is a cross between psychoanalysis and existentialist though about how the ways we think (or don’t think) about death influence our minds and our society.

Religion for Atheists: A Non-believer’s Guide to the Uses of Religion by Alain de Botton – 50% through this. Nice concept – take the best bits of religion and leave the rest.


An Ideal Husband by Oscar Wilde – Enjoyed it.

The Importance of Being Earnest by Oscar Wilde – Awesome.

Of Love and Other Demons (Vintage International) by Gabriel Garcia Marquez – Very good.

The Essential Homer: Selections from the Iliad and the Odyssey by Stanley Lombardo – Only 20% through this.

The Secret Tricks to Planning and Booking Holidays Online

Is it still too bloody hard to plan and book a holiday yourself economically and intelligently? Whether it be choosing where you want to go or booking flights and hotels, it takes time effort and usually some level of frustration.

The idea of this post is to open your eyes to the range of innovative travel sites out there that can help you book trips online. It will also outline some opportunities in the online travel space. Since there is alot of information below, click the following links to skip to any of the sections below:

Having spent countless hours of online research for my own trips, I’ve been able to cruise through 30 countries with perhaps far more insight than I would have had 20 years ago. I’ve also learned plenty of lessons along the way. But, the key difference between now and 20 years ago is that the onus of effort now mostly fell on me rather than a travel agent.

Thinking over my trips, I have compared booking sites for best prices and quality, scanned different flight maps and routes for the best ways to arrange my trips, asked friends and travel agents for advice, and scanned through and filtered hundreds of user reviews on a range of different sites. Compound this with many of my friends doing almost exactly the same work and you have a generation of Aussie dollar fueled travel agents in the making.

The range of options below vary in terms of effort and payoff. I’ve tried to give my assessment of how useful they by outlining how often I use them when planning and booking trips overseas.

9 Cool Travel Sites You Didn’t Know About

Room 77 – A particularly smart tool I have used to discover hotel rooms in different cities around the world. I prefer the number of choices it gives you in how you filter the results and like that it integrates reviews into the search results. I also like that it lets you see the search results of a hotel search on a map easily. Here is an example of a Room 77 search of hotels in Tallinn Estonia in map view.

Mygola – This tool is like a crowdsourced trip planning service that allows you to request personalised trip planning from their range of trip planners. Usefully, it also allows you to search the range of other people’s completed trip planning requests. From what I have seen, the site seems useful though you have to have confidence in their planners to rely on the site completely. Here is an example – Things to do in Instanbul. I also quite like their payment model (free for some level of service or $30 a trip / $99 a year for quick personal service).

Airbnb / Wimdu / VRBO – These sites are cool. They allow you to avoid hotels and book people’s apartments directly from them in other cities. Have used Airbnb which has the best service and safety in St Petersburg, Medellin, Hong Kong and Stockholm.

Adioso Flight Bookings –  Whilst this site is still in beta, I like what they’re trying to do. They give a range of far more useful flight search options than the standard painful dropdown menu seen on most flight booking engines in the world. Say you know you want to go away this weekend from Sydney but dont know where. Or say you don’t even know when but you know you want to get away soon. A search like this on Adioso could help you outlining a range of the cheapest flights out of  Sydney over the coming months.  It also lets you create flight alerts for places you want to go to be sent to you by email.

Gogobot - This is a social travel guide and planning website. It lets you see how your friends travel, what they recommend and what people you don’t know recommend. I have not used it extensively yet and it could fall prey to the problem of too much information if not done well but it does have some cool features.

Expert Flyer – Probably not on the same level of usefulness for me as those above but this site helps you to ensure you get better seats on the flight bookings that you make by using alerts. Quite useful for very frequent flyers i imagine.

The Cheapest Ways to Find and Book Flights

There are so many flight bookings options out there. Many of them I find add a % to the cheapest airfare you can get at any particular time. As a result, I use a combination of the following to find and then get the best price on flights and often ending up booking directly through the airline or a travel agent after finding the best deals available.

Additionally, don’t buy airline tickets earlier than about 4 months before departure unless it is peak season when you are leaving (in which case do). Airfare prices can rise dramatically within 14 days of departure so if you are going to leave it late, you are likely to pay more. Sign up for general sale alerts on Bestflights below, your favourite airlines and any other good booking sites mentioned here. These can save you alot of money.

Skyscanner – I have used this site for years. Again, whilst it doesn’t cover all routes around the world on all airlines (something I believe these sites need to do), it is very useful in terms of discovering which flight paths are quickest and cheapest to get you where you want to go. In particular, I like their visual flight map where you can see all the flight options out of a city and at what cost they come (say, you’re in Oslo and don’t know where you want to go next). They also let you see a whole month worth of flight options leaving a particular city. E.g. here is a list of flights out of Istanbul in August this year.

Jetabroad - This is my favourite service online for discovering multi-city flight bookings. They are also usually the cheapest or close to it. Can highly recommend this service. When thinking about opportunities in this space, one reason I sometimes still book with the airline or a travel agent after using Jetabroad even thought the prices are similar is the former options allow me to hold a fare before paying.

Bestflights – This company has a very time intensive though useful way of aiding in the flight booking process. They list all the sale fares of each of the different airlines. Choose your region. Choose your range of sales fares (usually >20) and enjoy reading through the deals (e.g. European sale fares). The process is painful though I do tend to use it each time I book flights. I have actually also tried to book through them to reward them but found their booking process tedious because they require you to put down a deposit before getting the full details of the fare when actually booking it. I also didn’t find their sales staff as nice as my regular travel agent. As a result, I use their information and book elsewhere (again something to consider for opportunities in this space).

Kayak - Good for multicity flights but not great. It seems mildly cheaper and more useful when booking hotels and flights in and around Europe.

Hipmunk - Very funky flight booking engine. Like Adioso, tries to give a range of more flexible search options. I still think the process they use is far from solved though as I can often find far cheaper flights either booking direct through the airline or on other sites like jetabroad, bestflights, kayak or my travel agent. As a result, I end up using Hipmunk as a discovery method in some cases (a risk of creating a useful tool in this space).

Adioso Flight Bookings –  Whilst this site is still in beta, I like what they’re trying to do. They give a range of far more useful flight search options than the standard painful dropdown menu seen on most flight booking engines in the world. Say you know you want to go away this weekend from Sydney but dont know where. Or say you don’t even know when but you know you want to get away soon. A search like this on Adioso could help you outlining a range of the cheapest flights out of  Sydney over the coming months.  It also lets you create flight alerts for places you want to go to be sent to you by email. – A very helpful tool for seeing a range of international flight booking options. Suggested by someone in the comments below.

Flight Fox – A site that lets you create itineraries for users of the site to match with airline fares while competing for a set prize.

Travel agents and Airlines Direct – I still often use a travel agent to finalise my bookings. I usually don’t waste too much of their time and they are quite happy to organise fares for me for particular prices if i go to them with the details after using the methods above. I also always check the price directly on the airline websites.

Finally, if you are after the absolute cheapest fares, you can also use or which always seems to have very cheap fares. You’ll need to speak Russian to be able to book on these sites.


The Cheapest Way to Find and Book Hotels and Hostels / orbitz / / room 77- These sites are where you’ll discover the hotels you want to stay in and make bookings online. My preference for search is Room 77. My preference for booking is and Kayak as they are often the cheapest. Search around and compare to find your best deals. You also usually get good cancellation options booking in advance with these sites and they don’t charge your credit card until you check out of the hotel.

Tripadvisor – I pretty much never book a hotel anymore without checking tripadvisor. It is a little painful sometimes and not always trustworthy but it is a good resource if you can be bothered putting in the time to sift through the reviews. Sometimes I find the place I like on Tripadvisor before even searching the hotel booking sites above. Again, room 77 helps here as it integrates both.

airbnb / wimdu / VRBO – These sites are cool. They allow you to avoid hotels and book people’s apartments directly from them in other cities. Personally, I use Airbnb which has the best service and safety. I’ve used it in St Petersburg, Medellin, Hong Kong and Stockholm.

Priceline / Hotwire lastminute – Whilst I am sure there is a way to use these sites effectively, I have never really been a fan of not knowing the place i’m staying before I pay. You used to be able to reverse engineer the secret hotels but this seemed harder the last time i tried.

Couchsurfing – Have done this plenty of times over the years and met some great people. I’ve never stayed on someone’s couch overseas but have had plenty of people stay at my place in Sydney. Good for meeting people overseas.

Other options for hotels include those daily deal type sites but I have not used them myself.

Deciding Where To Go on Your Holiday And What To Do

I use a combination of the research above, friends’ tips, tripadvisor, and email alerts to decide where and when to go. Again, I believe there is an opportunity here to help people make these calls more strategically.

In terms of what to do when you are on your holiday, there are a range of social travel startups popping up that can help you organise your time, plan your activities even meet people when you are there.  I also use Tripadvisor and lonely planet forums to find fun things to do in the places I visit. There is also a lot of value in just seeing what happens when you are in a new city so make sure you don’t overplan.

Vayable - A way to directly hire local guides for activities overseas.

Gogobot - This site is a social travel guide and planning website. It lets you see how your friends travel, what they recommend and what others also recommend. I have not used it extensively yet and it could fall prey to the problem of too much information if not done well but it does have some cool features.

Pinterest – I have been storing places I’d like to go on a board on pinterest. It also is a useful way for discovering places to go by searching.

Tripbod - Meant to be original travel experiences from locals overseas. similar to Vayable.

Wannaout – Unlaunched but could be cool.

Wanderfly – Similar to Gogobot and Mygola. Personalized travel recommendations.

Triptrotting - Similar to an idea a friend of mine Alex had a few years back. Meet locals overseas. His site is Meet Travelers though is still growing at this stage.

Evature - meet to be able to allow free-text search for online travel. Would be cool if they can get it working.

Citybot -  A way to get city guides on your iphone / android overseas. Still unlaunched.

Couchsurfing – Good for meeting people overseas.

This is the first of a series of blogs on the topic of travel. If you feel I’ve missed out on some useful options, please let me know or comment below as I’d like to improve this list over time. Please subscribe above if you’d like to hear more tips in the future.

Are Google And Apple Using Patent Wars To Hinder Innovation?

News of late has me feeling that patents may in fact be hindering innovation. The exact opposite of what they’re intended to do.

Patent wars, let’s call them, are abounds. Samsung knows all about them with their Galaxy Tab 10.1 having been not allowed in Europe and Australia for half a year (“Australia court extends Samsung Galaxy Tab sales ban“). And Google bought Motorola who hasn’t made a successful phone in years (“Google makes money on Iphone, Motorola patents“).

The titans of the tech world are spending billions trying to maximise their competitive positions (“Google increases war effort against Apple, buys 1000+ patents from IBM“,””Consortium led by Apple buys Nortel’s patents for $4.5 billion“). But why?

Mobile Communications Related Issued Patents (1993-2011)

The simple answer is that it is smart for them to do so. Patents provide inventors lasting reward for innovation by limited others from profiting from their inventions for set periods of time. Generally, I imagine that this has been a very successful law in encouraging innovation and I don’t want to suggest otherwise.

Where it gets interesting however is when companies make acquisitions, what happens to the patents of the target company. Below is a good example of where acquiring a company’s patents might have been a reasonably good idea for Yahoo.

“Though Brin and Page had a good meeting with Yahoo founders Jerry Yang and David Filo, former Stanford students, Yahoo didn’t see the need to buy search engine technology.” [In The Plex: How Google Thinks, Works, and Shapes Our Lives by Steven Levy]

Good move Yahoo. Missed opportunities aside though, the scenario above seems pretty standard in my books. A big company could buy a smaller company with the hopes that it can use the smaller company’s technology to reach more people. It also probably has more money to throw at developing the technology if it chooses to.

Now, let’s think about this scenario where I think the lines are a little more blurred. Patents can cover the most minute of inventions that may also be incredibly useful parts of bigger technologies.

“While Jobs could not stop Google from developing the Dream version of Android, he apparently was successful, at least in the first version of the Google phone, in halting its implementation of some of the multitouch gestures that Apple had pioneered. Jobs believed that Apple’s patents gave it exclusive rights to certain on-screen gestures—the pinch and the swipe, for example. According to one insider, Jobs demanded that Google remove support of those gestures from Android phones. Google complied, even though those gestures, which allowed users to resize images, were tremendously useful for viewing web pages on handheld devices.” [In The Plex: How Google Thinks, Works, and Shapes Our Lives by Steven Levy]

So Jobs may have stopped the multitouch gestures being allowed into Android phones. Now fast forward a few years.

“The iPhone was still the royalty of smart phones. But as Android became the fastest-growing smart-phone operating system—by mid-2010, Google partners were selling 200,000 a day—Jobs increased the pressure. He sued the handset manufacturer HTC, alleging that its Android phones used techniques patented by Apple. Within days, Google rolled out a change in Android’s operating system: it would now support the pinch and stretch multitouch gestures that Jobs had demanded that Google remove. The capability had been hibernating inside the code base, and all Google had to do was switch it on in the next upgrade. Schmidt maintained that those developments were part of the normal course of competition. ” [In The Plex: How Google Thinks, Works, and Shapes Our Lives by Steven Levy]

What we see here is one company being limited from implementing technology created by another company. At least for some time. Regardless of whether Google’s intention is to make cash or don’t be evil, Google have not made some incredible innovations over the years that have significantly benefited billions of people. Stopping them implementing a small though useful technology here created by Apple stopped them from improving the Android technology for a period of time. This in turn affected tens of millions of people.

Apple and Google are both massive companies. Apple in fact had more cash on hand than the US Federal Reserve late last year. They’re not going hungry tonight. But, they’re obviously still protected by patent laws. I’m certainly not saying that they shouldn’t be but the example above shows that society can lose out in some cases due to reduced competition. Though, potentially just in the short term.

Taking it one step further than the example above, when companies specifically buy companies to acquire patents so they can block companies launching products, you really have to wonder if it is going too far. To be fair though, Google does seem to be very open with a range of their intellectual property.

Keeping this in perspective though, it is clearly a first world problem.


Self Control, Motivation and Why Bronze is better than Silver [Startuponomics 2011]

The second talk at Startuponomics was made by Dan Ariely and it concerned the problem of self control and how to go about motivating oneself better. A summary of the first talk is here – What Can Jam Teach you about Choice.

clocky alarm clock - Motivating?

He discussed people always wanting something in principle but typically not wanting to act to get that something right now. There are many things in life where we are designed not to care about the right things. Typically long term decisions, decisions far in the future, decisions that take alot of time, decisions that have high complexity and decisions that we don’t have much impact over in the short term.

He discussed his own personal problem of liver cirrhosis which required him to take a painful dose of medicine regularly for 18 months. He went about motivating himself to take the injections on time by pairing the taking of the medication with watching his favourite movies. He calls this principle reward substitution.

Would you prefer a half box chocolate now or a full box in a week? Most people say a half box now. Yet phrase it as a half box in a year or a half box in a 1 year and a week, and people switch their preferences.

Part of the success of the Toyato Prius over its competition was due to how it looked. It looked distinctly different. It gave people ego utility. People were able to signal to others that they cared about the environment whereas this was not possible with other cars as they looked the same. This illustrates that making some things visible can improve behaviour. It shows that finding other types of motivations can make a difference.

Find other types of motivations. We care about competition, completion, image, accomplishment. These things motivate. Money, Guilt, Shame, Social proof, Ego.

Thinking about the global warming problem. It is a very hard problem to solve. This is because it is far in the future, it is uncertain, it will likely not ultimately affect us,   it requries a change in entrenched behaviours and individually we can have very little impact on it.

Study – How do you go about getting patients that have had a 2nd stroke to take their medication? Apparently informing them that they have a high chance of death if they don’t take it is not enough. Some ideas are to notify kids if you don’t take it or give a reward if you take the medication. Sometimes a gift is more motivating than cash of the same value. You could also make something disappear if they stop using it, eg mobile phone not working. You could use fear of dying. you could create social connection to other people taking the medication. You could show a picture of someone getting fed today in a poor country if you take your pill (and not give the idea that they child will not be fed if you don’t). What worked best was letting people participate in a lottery related to the taking of their pill. On the first day they didnt take it, they were informed that they had won the lottery. They were then informed they wouldn’t be awarded the prize as they had not taken their pill. Taking the medication increased significantly.

Think about how long we need to sustain the motivation and what happens if we stop.

There is a point where giving money makes people moitvated (e.g. giving $1000 to floss your teeth, flossing would increase for most people).

A 1/1000 chance to win a thousand dollars is felt as more motivating than the same $1 value of the chance.

Regret is the emotion where you imagine another state of your life.

Study – Gold, bronze, silver example at the olympics. Gold and bronze are observed as the happiest. Why? Silver imagines themselves in the gold state and bronze is just happy to have avoided 4th.

Self control contracts are powerful. Ulysses and the sirens example. He knew he would be tempted so he tied himself to the ship.

Study – Rats were trained to press two buttons. One was the press a green lever and get a pellet of food. Another lever was to wait ten seconds and get ten pellets of food. Rats often chose the instant gratification of the first lever. But when a no temptation lever was added which disabled the green lever, some rats were able to press it. Implication is that imposing self control contracts can be powerful.

Examples of innovated product design using these principles – We are a different person at night compared with 6am in the morning regarding aiming to go for a morning run. the product called Clocky (hard to find alarm, have to find it to turn it off). Alarm clock connected to bank account and charity you hate. Imagine a website that is connected to your parents that tells them if you are watching porn.

People need red buttons. Need to encourage self control.

Not always about habit, it is about what decisions we can make that are sustainable.

Dieting vs no smoking example. Need different motivations for different goals.

Contract example of sending letter to mum about heroin use. You agree to send your parents a letter, write the letter and give it to a company that is bound to send it if you fail a drug test at any time in the future (tests are random). This idea was stopped as it created violations of human rights but it was also effective.

What Can Jam Teach You About Choice? [Startuponomics 2011]

From the people who brought you the Intelligent Investor’s 15 day free trial series, today the Startuponomics trip report series has begun. Be excited, be ready.

I recently attended Startuponomics in San Francisco, a conference run by Dan Ariely on behavioural economics, decision making, irrational thought, motivation, influencing behaviour, and how people think. I learned a huge amount of interesting information at this conference and I hope this little series will help share some of it for those interested. Some posts will be longer than others as they are summarising 1-3 hour discussions. Subscribe to my rss on the right to ensure you don’t miss out! Click here to unsubscribe.

Now, let’s get on with it.


Dan Ariely – Day 1

Think of behaviour as a flow or process. Where can we intervene?

He discussed external vs subjective reality. Your intuition about how the world operates is biased.

Study – Table length illusion example. E.G. told visual illusions are X, but our brain keeps seeing Y.

Example about box checking. Check the box if you don’t want to participate. Opt in vs opt out. The default is to not check the box no matter what the question is. Consider the fact that we are less active than we think in making our decisions.

The environment of the interface has a massive impact on the customers decision. If questioned, we come up with stories about what we chose even though our reasons may not be real.

Study – Long term medication company. Drug rep example. generic vs branded medication. Trying to make people do something different to what they’re doing. 80/20 branded / generic went to 10/90 after telling people that they had to choose one or the other compared with asking them to choose generic which caused little change.

When discussing it, people lie or get it wrong. People behave as if it is expensive to return the postcard when it would save them money. Understand how defaults work. Question about assuming change and if people still didn’t respond.

Study – Physicians example where physicans were told that they had made a mistake a day prior with a patient – would they call them to inform them to take a pain killer? 60/40 in group 1. All did nothing in second group when decision was nothing, ibuprofen or some other drug. Defaults are important. But when you add more complexity to the decision to do nothing or not, more people do nothing. [Ask Question about competing principle economist example.]

Study – He gave an example about reducing the urinal bed pans in hospital (maybe do it by changing the default). Default matters alot in things that we pay alot of attention to. As things become more difficult we want to do less and as a result interface designers decide for us.

Study -The jam study. 6 or 24 Jams. 40/60 approach the table in each case respectively. 1.4/1.5 try jams. 30% /3% actually buy. ” I’ll do it next time” is more common amongst the high choice option. Excitement can be overturned by too much choice. Technically more options fits more tastes but also results in confusion. Options increase utility up to a point then it goes negative. Then it reverts to the default of nothing if too much choice.

Study – 401 k example. A ways to make less contributions is to make it opt in rather than opt out. Give lots of options. Make the decision seem important. [Ask question about what effect importance has]. Think about how much time we actually spend on important decisions. Not enough (marriage kids university).

Switch with opt out option works.

Lots of software is resistant to changes. Think about how we build software as a result of irrationality.

Defaults discussion 

Default is no mail delivery. If we want more people on mail, we should change the interface.

Default is click here to not receive offers from us.  Similarly, this can be manipulated.

Default is not having a free trial or access to an article. One idea is to sign them up automatically and tell them to enter their details to complete the process.

Can you think of any more?

Zero has a special place in people’s hearts. Don’t train people to think the service costs nothing. Give it a value. Make people work for it, fill out a survey to get it free might help people value their trials at ii (though it also may reduce sign ups). We can do this after we have their email address.

Study – Cheap airline example where a long one step interface with matrix style options was made into a two step process with other changes. The idea to break it into two screens and changed the previous premium option to basic and the others to basic (minus x,y, z).  Very successful (so much so that results not revealed). Used loss aversion in the process. How to trial this on our site?.

We have lots of individual differences but are tuned to the differences. We are all more similar than we think.

There is a trade off between how many people finish versus the quality of the data.

Study – The pre holed card for caraway example. Pre-punched cards (10 car washes to get one free, 20 to get one free with 10 pre-punched) – people think they’re half-way through and complete the second lot more.

Study – The example… Should they create a new step in the sign up process to let people choose their theme. Work hard before you do anything else. Ikea effect.

If you believe in people being irrational, how do you feel about forcing people to do things?

Influencing decisions once versus habits. The 3 vs 10 reasons you love someone example. Participants asked to list either 3 or 10 reasons that they love someone. The way we are made to think about something for time can change our opinion since this changed how much they said they love the person when surveyed afterwards. The extent to which we don’t know our preferences is quite large. Interface makes the difference. In this case 3 was more powerful as people couldn’t think of 10 reasons often.

E.g. Think about 15 ways this class could be improved. What if you do it in week 4 vs 12, they forget. time lapsed is crucial.

Study - How often do you floss example. Giving a scale can influence their future depending on where on the scale they fall (so you can manipulate where people will fall on a scale and how they will act by varying the scale). Then more people went to dentist when low on the scale. Scales can Shape behaviour.

Study – Financial advisor risk attitudes example. Asking people to remember bad things before asking preferences can have an impact. “stock market example”. Can manipulate emotion in this way. But once answered they take it very seriously. They will then rely on it.

When market research about what they think they think through surveying they will make it up on the spot. The way you ask the question really influences the answer. Observing preferences is very different to directly asking for them.

Computer processor example. Audi configuring example. People don’t actually know they preferences for buying cars and the average car bought was always close to the default options (several different default car options were tested (e.g. base including leather seats / base not including leather seats).   People don’t know their preferences. Need to get people to committ while they are primed.

I’m not certain I’ll continue the series on this blog (i was only planning on doing via email), so if you are interested in hearing more about the talks, please like this post or post a comment below.

Edit – The next article in the series is available here – Self Control, Motivation and why Bronze is better than Silver

Opinions are my own – mostly.